A higher effective nuclear charge causes greater attractions to the electrons, pulling the electron cloud closer to the nucleus which results in a smaller atomic radius. Down a group, the number of energy levels (n) increases, so there is a greater distance between the nucleus and the outermost orbital.
What increases attraction of an electron?
The farther away, the less the attraction for an atom’s electrons. The more protons, the greater the attraction for an atom’s electrons. The more electrons, the less the attraction for an atom’s electrons.
Does more electrons increase attraction?
e.g. Li → Ne: The atoms have increased “pulling power” as the nuclear charge is increasing. Electrons are held tighter to the nucleus and there is a greater net electrostatic attraction. This allows another atom to be closer and it has a stronger attraction to electrons from that atom, so electronegativity increases.
Which element would an electron be more attracted to?
Explanation: Fluorine has the greatest attraction for electrons in any bond that it forms. The attraction of an atom for shared electrons is called its electronegativity.
What would decrease the attraction of an electron?
An increase in atomic size leads to a decrease in electron affinity because the incoming electron is added further away from the nucleus, i.e. on a higher energy level. … When you add more protons to the nucleus, it will attract electrons more.
What factors affect the attraction between protons and electrons in an atom?
In an atom, the most important factors that influence the force, as calculated by Coulomb’s equation, are the nuclear charge and the distance from the nucleus to the electron of interest. The closer an electron is to a nucleus, the stronger the attractive force (i.e. the more negative F becomes).
Do additional protons tend to increase the electron nucleus attraction?
Ionization energy and atomic number. Moving from left to right across the periodic table, the ionization energy for an atom increases. We can explain this by considering the nuclear charge of the atom. The more protons in the nucleus, the stronger the attraction of the nucleus to electrons.
What has a greater effect on attraction between nucleus and electron?
Across a period, effective nuclear charge increases as electron shielding remains constant. A higher effective nuclear charge causes greater attractions to the electrons, pulling the electron cloud closer to the nucleus which results in a smaller atomic radius.
Why does electron affinity increase across a period?
Electron affinity increases upward for the groups and from left to right across periods of a periodic table because the electrons added to energy levels become closer to the nucleus, thus a stronger attraction between the nucleus and its electrons.
What affects nuclear attraction?
Effective Nuclear Charge (Zeff)
According to Coulomb’s law, the attraction of an electron to a nucleus depends only on three factors: the charge of the nucleus (+Z), the charge of the electron (-1), and the distance between the two (r).
Which element would be least likely to attract an electron?
In particular, cesium (Cs) can give up its valence electron more easily than can lithium (Li). In fact, for the alkali metals (the elements in Group 1), the ease of giving up an electron varies as follows: Cs > Rb > K > Na > Li with Cs the most likely, and Li the least likely, to lose an electron.
Which has highest electron affinity?
Which Element Has the Highest Electron Affinity? Chlorine has the highest electron affinity among the elements. Its high affinity can be attributed to its large atomic radius, or size. Because chlorine’s outermost orbital is 3p, its electrons have a large amount of space to share with an incoming electron.
Which type of elements tends to have the greatest attraction for electrons in a bond?
Nonmetals typically have the highest electronegativity values and therefore the greatest attraction for bonded electrons. 6.
What effect is caused by inner electrons interfering with the attraction of outer electrons?
electron shielding: As more electrons are added to a nucleus, the outer electrons become shielded from the nucleus by the inner shell electrons. inner core electrons: Electrons that prevent attraction between valence electrons and protons.
What do you think is the effect of increasing electron number to the size of the molecule?
Since the force of attraction between nuclei and electrons increases, the size of the atoms decreases. The effect lessens as one moves further to the right in a period because of electron-electron repulsions that would otherwise cause the atom’s size to increase.
What factors affect electron affinity?
Various factors that affect electron affinity are atomic size, nuclear charge and the symmetry of the electronic configuration. Atomic size: With increase in the atomic size, the distance between the nucleus and the incoming electron also increases.